In approximately half of the couples suffering from infertility, male-factor infertility is either the main or one of the contributing factors to their problem. 

Despite that, thorough assessment of men is frequently neglected as opposed to the numerous tests and investigations the female partners undergo. 

At Fertility Advanced we believe that proper evaluation of male factor infertility is of paramount importance and whenever necessary we adopt a multidisciplinary approach, involving our collaborating Consultant Urologists or/and our embryologists. 

In over half of men, the cause of fertility issues is unknown. Chronic infections, serious illnesses, local injuries to the genital area and lifestyle attitudes, have all been linked to male infertility. 

Apart from semen analysis, which is essential to be done by all men as a first line investigation for infertility, we offer various advanced male fertility tests in collaboration with the top andrology laboratories in Greece. These tests include: 

Semen analysis is a simple test and is essential to be done by all men as a first line investigation for infertility. If a previous test has been done and it is over a year ago, the test needs to be repeated. A 2-3 days period of sexual abstinence is required before the test.  

Semen analysis examines the following sperm parameters: 

  • Semen volume, which is the amount of semen fluid. 
  • Sperm concentration, which is the amount of sperm contained within the semen fluid. 
  • Sperm motility, which provides information on how the sperm is moving and evaluates the percentage of spermatozoa that are moving vigorously. 
  • Sperm morphology, which provides information on the shape and the size of spermatozoa and evaluates the percentage of spermatozoa that look normal. 
  • The presence of any white or red blood cells within the sample, which could indicate an infection. 

A DNA sperm fragmentation test is performed on a semen sample to assess the level of DNA damage in your sperm.  

This test gives important information about the integrity of the DNA in your sperm and represents an evaluation tool for the assessment of your sperm’s quality. 

Various studies have shown that increased levels of sperm DNA damage are associated with unexplained infertility, unsuccessful IUI or IVF treatments and recurrent miscarriages. 

If the DNA damage in your sperm is increased we will give you specific advice in order to improve the degree of the damage. However, if the fragmentation levels are too high we will refer you for a urological opinion.  

For couples proceeding with an IVF treatment, when the sperm DNA fragmentation level is high, ICSI should be used instead of IVF for the fertilisation of the eggs, even if the sperm’s parameters are all normal. 

SAT is a diagnostic test that analyses the sperm with a Technique called FISH to identify the percentage of spermatozoa with chromosomal abnormalities. It evaluates in particular, the chromosomal abnormalities, which are mostly implicated in spontaneous miscarriages or male infertility (chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y). 

The results of the test are available within 2 weeks and can prove a useful tool for the management of couples who have suffered recurrent miscarriages, unsuccessful IVF treatments or a previous pregnancy with chromosomal abnormality.

The presence of bacteria, such as chlamydia, or other pathogenic microorganisms in the sperm may remain undetected, as it is often asymptomatic. When these pathogens are present in the sperm can compromise sperm quality, leading to infertility. 

Sometimes these pathogenic microorganisms may be located inside the spermatozoa (intracellular) and subsequently transferred inside the embryo, leading to a miscarriage. 

We offer a new sensitive test, which unlike conventional methods can additionally detect intracellular pathogens inside spermatozoa, using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry technique.  

This test allows for the prompt diagnosis and treatment of sperm infections with the use of targeted antibiotics/antivirals.   

MAR test is used to identify an immunological cause of infertility by looking for anti-sperm antibodies in the semen. 

These antibodies when present may reduce the ability of the sperm to penetrate the egg, preventing fertilization and causing infertility. 

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species in the sperm results in oxidative stress, as the available antioxidants in the sperm cannot efficiently neutralise the excessive amount of the reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress damages the sperm and existing evidence suggests that is one of the major causes of male infertility, especially in cases of unexplained infertility or when abnormal semen parameters are found.